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For example, when you search for a film, we use your search information and location to show the most relevant cinemas near you. California Attorney General Jerry Brown explained that the changes were required to more "accurately reflect the measure" in light of the California Supreme Court's intervening In re Marriage Cases decision. On July 22, , Proposition 8 supporters mounted a legal challenge to the revised ballot title and summary, contending that Attorney General Brown inserted "language [ On August 8, , the California Superior Court turned down the legal challenge, affirming the new title and summary, stating, "the title and summary is not false or misleading because it states that Proposition 8 would 'eliminate the right of same-sex couples to marry' in California.
The Court of Appeal denied their petition later that day and supporters did not seek a review by the Supreme Court of California. While turning down the challenge to the title and summary, the California Superior Court also found that the Yes on 8 campaign had overstated its ballot argument on the measure's impact on public schools and ordered a minor change in wording. The original arguments included a claim that the Supreme Court's legalization of same-sex marriage requires teachers to tell their students, as young as kindergarten age, that same-sex marriage is the same as opposite-sex marriage.
The court said the Yes on 8 argument was false because instruction on marriage is not required and parents can withdraw their children. The court said the ballot argument could be preserved by rewording it to state that teachers "may" or "could" be required to tell children there is no difference between same-sex and opposite-sex marriage.
By election day, volunteers on both sides spent thousands of hours getting their messages across to the state's Both proponents and opponents of Proposition 8 made significant use of online tactics for campaigning. For example, over videos were posted on YouTube, most consisting of original content and most taking a position against the Proposition. A greater proportion of 'Yes on 8' videos were scripted and professionally produced.
Many 'No on 8' videos recorded demonstrations in the aftermath of the election. Proponents of the constitutional amendment argued that exclusively heterosexual marriage was "an essential institution of society", that leaving the constitution unchanged would "result in public schools teaching our kids that gay marriage is okay", and that gay people "do not have the right to redefine marriage for everyone else".
The ProtectMarriage. The measure also attracted the support of a number of political figures and religious organizations. Republican presidential nominee and U. Senator John McCain released a statement of support for the proposed constitutional amendment.
Both characterized the court ruling requiring recognition of same sex marriage as being against the will of the people. The Roman Catholic Church ,  as well as a Roman Catholic lay fraternal organization , the Knights of Columbus ,  firmly supported the measure. The bishops of the California Catholic Conference released a statement supporting the proposition,  a position met with mixed reactions among church members, including clergy. George Hugh Niederauer as Archbishop of San Francisco campaigned in in favor of the Proposition, and claimed to have been instrumental in forging alliances between Catholics and Mormons to support the measure.
He also attended and addressed the audience at the "March for Marriage", a rally opposing marriage for same-sex couples, in Washington, D. The First Presidency of the church announced its support for Proposition 8 in a letter intended to be read in every congregation in California. In this letter, church members were encouraged to "do all you can to support the proposed constitutional amendment by donating of your means and time".
In the months leading up to Election Day , Proposition 8 supporters released a commercial featuring San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom stating in a speech regarding same-sex marriage: "This door's wide open now. It's going to happen, whether you like it or not. Opponents argued that "the freedom to marry is fundamental to our society", that the California constitution "should guarantee the same freedom and rights to everyone", and that the proposition "mandates one set of rules for gay and lesbian couples and another set for everyone else".
They also argued that "equality under the law is a fundamental constitutional guarantee" see Equal Protection Clause. Equality for All was the lead organization opposed to Proposition 8.
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Some non-partisan organizations and corporations, as well as the editorial boards of many of the state's major newspapers, also opposed the measure. While Democratic presidential nominee and U. Senator Barack Obama stated that while he personally considered marriage to be between a man and woman,  and supported civil unions that confer comparable rights rather than gay marriage,  he opposed "divisive and discriminatory efforts to amend the California Constitution Constitution or those of other states".
House Speaker , California Representative 8th District , Nancy Pelosi  along with other members of the California congressional delegation and both of California's U. All six Episcopal diocesan bishops in California jointly issued a statement opposing Proposition 8 on September 10, In addition, the California Council of Churches urged the "immediate removal of Proposition 8"—saying that it infringes on the freedom of religion for churches who wish to bless same-sex unions. The League of Women Voters of California opposed Proposition 8 because "no person or group should suffer legal, economic or administrative discrimination".
A coalition of Silicon Valley executives urged a 'No' vote on Proposition 8. Many members of the entertainment industry were opposed to Proposition 8. Brad Pitt and Steven Spielberg each donated different amounts of money to the opposition campaign "No on 8".
All ten of the state's largest newspapers editorialized against Proposition 8, including the Los Angeles Times ,  and the San Francisco Chronicle. After the election, a number of protests were held against the referendum's passing. These included candlelight vigils outside organizations such as LDS churches that promoted the proposition.
Boycotts were also a feature of public response to the outcome of the election. LGBT rights groups published lists of donors to the Yes on 8 campaign and organized boycotts of individuals or organizations who had promoted or donated to it. Some supporters of Proposition 8 reported receiving death threats , some of which claimed to be "stemming from Prop 8".
Fresno-area supporters of gay marriage were also harassed; "No On 8" signs at the Clovis Unitarian Universalist Church were torn up, with Reverend Bryan Jessup alleging that his church experienced vandalism "every night".
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Various opinion polls were conducted to estimate the outcome of the proposition. Those margins with differences less than their margins of error are marked as "n. Those margins considered statistically significant are indicated with the percentage points and the side favored in the poll, as either "pro" for in favor of the proposition's passage e. According to the director of the Field Poll, the discrepancy between the pre-election polls and ballot results is because "regular church-goers Amending the California Constitution by voter initiative requires a simple majority to be enacted.
Hispanic and Latino voters also voted for Proposition 8. Those who described themselves as religious were the strongest supporters of Prop 8. In California, a constitutional amendment passed by the electorate takes effect the day after the election. Following the passage of Proposition 8, mass protests took place across the state. These included protests outside the LDS Church's Los Angeles California Temple in Westwood, Los Angeles ;  a march through Hollywood that blocked traffic and elicited police intervention;  a candlelight vigil in front of the Sacramento Gay and Lesbian Center and a large demonstration in front of the state capitol.
These included protests outside a temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Westwood, Los Angeles ;  a march through Hollywood that blocked traffic and elicited police intervention;  and a candlelight vigil in front of the Sacramento Gay and Lesbian Center.
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On Sunday November 9 an estimated crowd of 4, people protested in front of the California State Capitol. Speakers who voiced their opinion in opposition of Proposition 8 included state senator Mark Leno and mayor Gavin Newsom. The passage of Proposition 8 led to opponents responding by publicly shaming its supporters as bigots and boycotting supporters' businesses and employers. Protests in California were marred by racial incidents. Due to their support of Proposition 8, reported as high as 70 percent, some African Americans attending events were allegedly subjected to racial epithets and felt threatened.
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California Assembly Speaker Karen Bass stated she was disturbed by the treatment of African Americans in the aftermath of the passage of the proposition. In reaction to the racial incidents, Evan Wolfson said, "In any fight, there will be people who say things they shouldn't say, but that shouldn't divert attention from what the vast majority are saying against this, that it's a terrible injustice. It was directed by Adam Shankman. The video satirizes Christian churches that selectively pick and choose biblical doctrines to follow. In , 8 , a play re-enacting the proceedings of Perry v.
Brown in a condensed manner of documentary theatre , was premiered on Broadway.
Church spokesman Scott Trotter denied the charges, saying the church had "fully complied with the reporting requirements" and a "further report will be filed on or before [ The Boston Herald reported on February 2, But in the filing made Friday, the Mormon church reported thousands in travel expenses, such as airline tickets , hotel rooms and car rentals for the campaign. In a statement issued February 2, , the LDS Church responded to "erroneous news reports", saying its subsequent disclosure was "in no way prompted by an investigation by the California Fair Political Practices Commission," that "We believe we have complied with California law," and that the report's filing date met the January 31, deadline.
The Church has been filing required contribution reports throughout the campaign. Those earlier donations 'initially stated' were filed for specific time periods prior to this last reporting period, as required by law.
Other groups are also filing their final contribution reports to meet the same deadline. On January 7, , supporters of Proposition 8 filed a federal lawsuit to block public disclosure of their donations. Alleging threats against their lives as well as other forms of harassment, the lawsuit also requested a preliminary injunction that ordered the California Secretary of State to remove information about donations posted on its website.
Opponents of Proposition 8 called it "hypocritical" that its supporters would refer to their support of the measure as the "will of the people" while seeking to overturn voter-approved campaign disclosure laws. District Judge Morrison England, Jr. After the passage of Proposition 8, a number of lawsuits were filed by against the state and state officials with the intent of overturning the measure and arguing that Proposition 8 should not have retroactive effect on existing same-sex marriages.
On November 13, , the California Supreme Court asked California Attorney General Jerry Brown for an opinion on whether the Court should accept these cases for review and whether the measure should be suspended while they decide the case. On November 19, the Court accepted three lawsuits challenging Proposition 8 but denied the requests to stay its enforcement.
Oral arguments were held on March 5, On Tuesday May 26 the court ruled that "The Amendment to the State Constitution referred to as Proposition 8 is valid and enforceable from the moment it was passed.
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The Court did rule that their decision cannot be applied to retroactively annul marriages that were transacted while the practice was legal in the state of California.