It was an intertribal, religious stronghold along the Wabash River in Indiana for Native Americans; it was known as Prophetstown to whites. Led by Tenskwatawa initially, and later jointly with Tecumseh, thousands of Algonquin-speaking Indians gathered at Tippecanoe to gain spiritual strength. Meanwhile, in , William Henry Harrison had become the governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory , with the capital at Vincennes.
Siege of Fort Vincennes | The American Revolutionary War | Twile
Harrison sought to secure title to Indian lands to allow for American expansion; in particular, he hoped that the Indiana Territory would attract enough white settlers so as to qualify for statehood. Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with American Indians. In , Harrison began to push for the need of another treaty to open more land for settlement.
The Miami, Wea, and Kickapoo were "vehemently" opposed to selling any more land around the Wabash River. In the negotiations, Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the tribes if they would cede the lands for which he was asking. Only the Miami opposed the treaty; they presented their copy of the Treaty of Greenville and read the section that guaranteed their possession of the lands around the Wabash River.
They then explained the history of the region and how they had invited other tribes to settle in their territory as friends. The Miami were concerned that the Wea leaders were not present, although they were the primary inhabitants of the land being sold. The Miami also wanted any new land sales to be paid for by the acre, and not by the tract. Harrison agreed to make the treaty's acceptance contingent on approval by the Wea and other tribes in the territory being purchased, but he refused to purchase land by the acre.
He countered that it was better for the tribes to sell the land in tracts so as to prevent the Americans from only purchasing their best lands by the acre and leaving them only poor land on which to live. After two weeks of negotiating, the Potawatomi leaders convinced the Miami to accept the treaty as reciprocity to the Potawatomi who had earlier accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the Miami.
The Kickapoo were closely allied with the Shawnee at Prophetstown and Harrison feared they would be difficult to sway. He offered the Wea an increased subsidy if the Kickapoo would also accept the treaty, causing the Wea to pressure the Kickapoo leaders to accept. By the spring of , Harrison had completed negotiations and the treaty was finalized. Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, and thereafter he emerged as a prominent political leader.
Tecumseh revived an idea advocated in previous years by the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant , which stated that American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, and thus no land could be sold without agreement by all.
Tecumseh knew that such "broad consensus was impossible", but that is why he supported the position. Tecumseh began to expand on his brother's teachings that called for the tribes to return to their ancestral ways, and began to connect the teachings with idea of a pantribal alliance. Tecumseh began to travel widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.
Harrison was impressed by Tecumseh and even referred to him in one letter as "one of those uncommon geniuses. Harrison suspected that he was behind attempts to start an uprising, and feared that if he were able to achieve a larger tribal federation, the British would take advantage of the situation to press their claims to the Northwest.
The warriors were all wearing war paint, and their sudden appearance at first frightened the soldiers at Vincennes. The leaders of the group were escorted to Grouseland , where they met Harrison. Tecumseh insisted that the Fort Wayne treaty was illegitimate; he asked Harrison to nullify it and warned that Americans should not attempt to settle the lands sold in the treaty. Tecumseh acknowledged to Harrison that he had threatened to kill the chiefs who signed the treaty if they carried out its terms, and that his confederation was rapidly growing.
He also rejected Tecumseh's claim that all the Indians formed one nation, and each nation could have separate relations with the United States. As proof, Harrison told Tecumseh that the Great Spirit would have made all the tribes to speak one language if they were to be one nation.
Tecumseh launched an "impassioned rebuttal", but Harrison was unable to understand his language. A Shawnee who was friendly to Harrison cocked his pistol from the sidelines to alert Harrison that Tecumseh's speech was leading to trouble.
Finally, an army lieutenant who could speak Tecumseh's language warned Harrison that he was encouraging the warriors with him to kill Harrison. Many of the warriors began to pull their weapons and Harrison pulled his sword. The entire town's population was only 1, and Tecumseh's men could have easily massacred the town, but once the few officers pulled their guns to defend Harrison, the warriors backed down.
Before leaving, Tecumseh informed Harrison that unless the treaty was nullified, he would seek an alliance with the British. During the next year, tensions began to rise quickly. Four settlers were murdered on the Missouri River , and in another incident, a boatload of supplies was seized by natives from a group of traders. Harrison summoned Tecumseh to Vincennes to explain the actions of his allies. Tecumseh then traveled to the south on a mission to recruit allies among the " Five Civilized Tribes ".
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Most of the southern nations rejected his appeals, but a faction among the Creeks , who came to be known as the Red Sticks , answered his call to arms, leading to the Creek War , which also became a part of the War of  Tecumseh delivered many passionate speeches and convinced many to join his cause.
Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett, the Mochican, the Pocanet, and other powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and oppression of the white man, as snow before the summer sun Sleep not longer, O Choctaws and Chickasaws Will not the bones of our dead be plowed up, and their graves turned into plowed fields?
Having heard from intelligence that Tecumseh was far away, Governor Harrison sent this report to the Department of War , concerning Vincennes's meeting: Tecumseh "is now upon the last round to put a finishing stroke upon his work. I hope, however, before his return that that part of the work which he considered complete will be demolished and even its foundation rooted up. As tensions rose, Harrison openly denounced Tenskwatawa as a fraud and a fool, enraging him.
Tecumseh ordered his brother to take no action, but his brother continued to call for the death of Harrison. Tenskwatawa lifted the ban on firearms and was able to quickly procure them in large quantities from the British in Canada. Tecumseh made a strategic error by leaving him alone to travel to the south.
Harrison had left the territory to travel to Kentucky while Tecumseh was still away, leaving Secretary John Gibson. Gibson had lived among the Indians for several years and soon heard from his friends that Tecumseh had secured an alliance with the British and procured weapons. He called out the territorial militia to prepare for the defense of the region and sent riders to recall Harrison. Harrison soon returned accompanied by army regulars and Kentucky volunteers.
He gathered the scattered Indiana militia units, totaling about men, and the Indiana Rangers together north of Vincennes. While Tecumseh was still in the south, Governor Harrison marched his army north along the Wabash River from Vincennes with more than 1, men on an expedition to intimidate the Prophet and his followers. His stated goal was to force them to accept peace, but he acknowledged that he would launch a pre-emptive attack on the natives if they refused.
His army stopped near present-day Terre Haute to construct Fort Harrison to guard an important position on the Wabash River. While at Fort Harrison, Harrison received orders from Secretary of War William Eustis authorizing him to use force if necessary to disperse the Indians at Prophetstown. On November 6, , Harrison's army arrived outside Prophetstown, and Tenskwatawa agreed to meet Harrison in a conference to be held the next day.
Tenskwatawa, perhaps suspecting that Harrison intended to attack the village, decided to risk a pre-emptive strike, sending out about of his warriors against the American encampment. Before the dawn of the next day, the Indians attacked, but Harrison's men held their ground, and the Indians withdrew from the village after the battle. Despite the surprise attack, the victorious Americans burned Prophetstown the following day and returned to Vincennes.
Perhaps not for all of the same reasons but I suspect we cover a lot of the same ground. While Cornwallis was left wondering why his more significant victory made less impact on the occupation. At that point Cornwallis moved on Charlotte. As Dan suggested in his post, he was not ready for such a move and ran into problems. The biggest problem was probably the annual fever outbreak that sidelined Banastre Tarleton along with entire regiments. The Legion Cavalry found itself commanded temporarily by George Hangar. They came within hours of success when British Lt.
Colonel Cruger showed up with a relief column. Augusta was saved but the GA backcountry was aflame. The last straw for the first invasion of North Carolina came in two parts. Glory days for the Swamp Fox as he takes Tarleton and the Legion on a merry chase through the swampy low country. Frequently Marion and Tarleton are mentioned together but, to my knowledge, the chase in early November was the only time the two matched wits.
Another little known and misunderstood battle in the partisan war. With a string of successes to their credit, most of the remaining men in the Long Canes and 96 District broke their paroles and returned to the field.
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Anyway, quick summary, the flow after Camden is:. Charlotte — Davie 4. Tearcoat Swamp — Marion 6. Fish Dam Ford — Sumter 7. To the extent that the designation represents the sum total of all these events, I could not agree more that it belongs on the top ten list. Maybe, but probably overrated on a top ten list.
American Revolution: Brigadier General George Rogers Clark
I believe that is exactly correct. The British had experienced a total collapse at their attempts to build a Tory militia or establish any control in the backcountry. At the end of , even before Cowpens, as Cornwallis was preparing to leave on his 2nd attempt at North Carolina, he was forced to give instructions that no troop movements could be made with less than men.
I have recently completed a very interesting research project on a fellow named Moses Kirkland who was from the 96 district. I am not sure of the exact publication date but it comes out soon and provides a very interesting look at how the Southern Strategy may have developed and definitely how it ran its course. It would be daunting to attack up such a steep hill and over uneven terrain into well planned and determined defenses.
There must have been a breakdown in loyalist command and control. Hi Wayne — apologies for the delayed response. Light at the end of the tunnel! First, on the question of Ferguson. Perhaps he just was not the best option for leading them in potential combat situations. I think we tend to overestimate the effect of a battle on loyalty one way or the other, because there is so much going on in between those battles that determine the same.
They took control of certain passes and bridges to force the Loyalists along the route they wanted them to take.